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全民嗆聲 美國掀起社會行動主義風潮

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世界日報編譯                               2018年03月24日

 

 

 

學生團體組織的「為活命而走」大遊行(March for Our Lives)24日在華府等數百個大城市登場,雖然又是一場呼籲槍枝管制的活動,但近來一連串的草根性爭權益活動凸顯出美國興起社會行動主義風潮,且大多數人認為民主不再是袖手旁觀的運動。

 

1960、70年代以來未見的大量民眾投身政治與社會行動主義,包括訴求對抗槍枝暴力的高中生、受夠低薪的教師,以及對抗性騷擾與男性主導政治的女性。女性大遊行始於抗議川普當選,時至去年10月在「我也是」(#MeToo)運動中達到巔峰且持續至今;許多女性挺身而出,抗議好萊塢及工作等職場性別不平等。

Children walk hand-in-hand as demonstrators protest the fatal shooting Sunday of an unarmed black man in Sacramento, Calif., Thursday, March 22, 2018. Hundreds of people rallied for Stephon Clark, a 22-year-old who was shot in his grandparents' backyard. Police say they feared he had a handgun when they confronted him after reports that he had been breaking windows, but he only had a cellphone. (AP Photo/Robert Petersen)

Children walk hand-in-hand as demonstrators protest the fatal shooting Sunday of an unarmed black man in Sacramento, Calif., Thursday, March 22, 2018. Hundreds of people rallied for Stephon Clark, a 22-year-old who was shot in his grandparents’ backyard. Police say they feared he had a handgun when they confronted him after reports that he had been breaking windows, but he only had a cellphone. (AP Photo/Robert Petersen)      兩個孩子手牽手參加一場抗議活動,其中一個孩子空著印有「黑人的命也是命」的T恤。這是加州沙加緬度的一名非裔被警察射殺之後舉行的抗議活動。(美聯社)

(FILES) In this file photo taken on February 17, 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School student Emma Gonzalez reacts during her speech at a rally for gun control at the Broward County Federal Courthouse in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. One month to the day after a 19-year-old shooter unleashed a hail of gunfire at a Florida high school, tens of thousands of American students will stage a school walkout in a politically charged tribute to the victims. The "National School Walkout" slated to begin March 14, 2018 at 10:00 am will last 17 minutes -- one for each victim shot dead during the Valentine's Day massacre in Parkland.  / AFP PHOTO / RHONA WISERHONA WISE/AFP/Getty Images

(FILES) In this file photo taken on February 17, 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School student Emma Gonzalez reacts during her speech at a rally for gun control at the Broward County Federal Courthouse in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
One month to the day after a 19-year-old shooter unleashed a hail of gunfire at a Florida high school, tens of thousands of American students will stage a school walkout in a politically charged tribute to the victims. The “National School Walkout” slated to begin March 14, 2018 at 10:00 am will last 17 minutes — one for each victim shot dead during the Valentine’s Day massacre in Parkland.   / AFP PHOTO / RHONA WISERHONA WISE/AFP/Getty Images     佛州帕克蘭高中生龔薩雷茲的推特追隨者在槍案後增至120萬人。圖為龔薩雷茲在槍案後演講,抨擊「捐款步槍協會政客:真是可恥」。(Getty Images)

 

女性社會行動又以政治活動最受矚目;羅格斯大學美國婦女政治中心表示,500位女性破紀錄地將年內角逐眾院選舉,尋求高階政治職位,其中四分之三為民主黨人。此前最多女性角逐參院或眾院選舉是在2012年,共有334人;目前女性議員在535席的眾院中占106席。

 

2月發生的佛州校園血案讓數以萬計的學生發起「走出教室」及「為活命而走」活動,要求政治人物採取行動對抗槍枝暴力,獲全國響應。

 

西維吉尼亞公立學校教師樹立了組織社會行動主義行動的典範,他們歷經九天抗議,爭取到5%加薪。白人警察槍殺非裔的種族爭議帶動了「黑人的命也是命」運動,以及美式足球單跪抗議,種種活動助長社會行動主義浪潮。

 

美國教師聯盟主席蘭迪‧懷恩嘉頓(Randi Weingarten)認為,這些活動的相似處是人們看見團結力量大,且社媒普及與組織活動的能力也大幅超越1960年代。「我也是」標籤幾天內就跨越100萬門檻,佛州帕克蘭高中生艾瑪‧龔薩雷茲(Emma Gonzalez)的推特追蹤者在槍案後增至120萬人,而西維吉尼亞州教師的臉書專頁成員從最初的100人增至2萬4000人。

 

公民大學創辦人者、前總統柯林頓顧問劉柏川(Eric Liu)認為,抗議活動的名稱或社媒主題標籤可能會改變,但他們的影響將持續。

 

中国妇权Women’s Rights in China
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